When you (or a loved one) are hurting physically, emotionally, or financially, it is natural to look for answers. Here are curated “Useful Links” for each of our Civil Litagation Services. We hope they help you.
Academic Appeals Links
Centennial College, Scarborough – Procedures for Hearings and Appeals
This 4-page PDF document dated 2007 outlines the procedures for the College Hearing Committee and the College Appeal Board at Centennial College. Both the College Hearing Committee and the College Appeal Board are administrative bodies and therefore not bound to observe strict legal procedures but ensure that their procedures are as fair as possible (“procedural fairness”) and rules on “balance of probability.”
Durham College, Oshawa – Academic Appeals
According to this 8-page PDF document dated 2017, appeals at Durham College are divided into two parts. School-Level Academic Appeals (which deal with grading of course-work, co-op placements, assignments, clinical placements, field placements, examinations and/or final course grades) and College-Level Academic Appeals (which deal with course-work, co-ops placements, assignments, clinical placements, field placements, examinations and/or final course grades in which a breach in process from the School-Level academic appeal has taken place or academic appeals relating to an academic decision pertaining to academic withdrawal).
George Brown College, Toronto – Academic Appeals Policy
This 18-page PDF document last reviewed in 2018, details a very specific, step-by-step process for student academic appeals. Each step in the process is only allowed 3, 5, or 10 days between the next step, so time is not on the student’s side. Students are cautioned about these strict timelines. The PDF document also includes the actual academic appeals form to George Brown College.
Humber College, Toronto – Appeals
Humber College has a 4-step school-level academic appeal process. The links below will take you to the respective PDF documents:
McMaster University, Hamilton – Student Appeals
This 2009 PDF document outlines the academic appeal process in 23 pages. McMaster University’s student appeal process has 3 steps: 1) Re-read or Reassessment; 2) Formal Inquiry; and 3) Appeal to the Senate Board for Student Appeals.
Mohawk College, Hamilton – Academic Appeals
Mohawk College provides a 15-page PDF download on this website about its academic process. Each step of the appeal process is conducted at either 5-day or 3-day intervals. Clearly, time is of the essence if a student wants to file an appeal. Mohawk College last updated its academic appeals policy in 2009.
Niagara College, Niagara-on-the-Lake – Appeals of Academic Decisions
This 2-page PDF document last updated in 2017 outlines Niagara College’s Appeals Process. “Students have the right to appeal without fear or disadvantage or reprisal. Appeals should ideally be resolved informally by parties involved. Appeals will be addressed in a timely manner adhering to time limits.”
Ontario College of Art and Design University (OCAD), Toronto – Academic Appeals
OCAD’s 4-page PDF detailing its Student Academic Appeals Policy was last updated in 2018. It is for students who believe that their circumstances warrant reconsideration of academic decisions may submit an appeal to the Senate Student Appeals Committee. Appropriate appeals include issues of final withdrawal, maximum 2 credit attempts and academic misconduct.
Seneca College, Toronto – Academic Appeal Policy
Seneca College has a very good website that explains its Academic Appeal Policy including: grounds for appeal; the academic appeal procedure; a flow chart of the process; an academic appeal request form; and an academic appeal assessment request form.
Ryerson University, Toronto – Appeals
Academic appeals can be filed with regard to a grade/standing, misconduct or non-academic conduct. Faculty of Science (FOS) and Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science (FEAS) grade and standing appeals must be filed online. All other appeals must be filed with the appropriate office in person using the correct forms.
Sheridan College, Oakville – Appeals Assistance
Sheridan College does not make its Academic Appeals and Consideration Policy public. Students must email firstname.lastname@example.org for a copy of the policy and the process.
University of Toronto (including Downtown Campus, Scarborough College, Mississauga Campus) – Appeals, Discipline and Faculty Grievances
With enrollment at more than 85,000 students annually, the University of Toronto has a separate website that deals with academic appeals at all its various faculties. Here is a flow chart of the appeal process; the University warns that all appeal decisions are final.
York University, Toronto – Appealing to the Senate Appeals Committee
This web page outlines the steps for academic appeals at York University. It also contains the actual appeal form as well as all the related policies on: academic honesty, grading, passing/failing, repeating courses, and withdrawal from university.
Click here to return to Academic Appeals Services section.
Elder Abuse Links
Advocacy Centre for the Elderly, Toronto
ACE provides direct legal services to low-income seniors, public legal education, and engages in law reform activities. ACE services and activities are in relation to areas of law of special importance to the seniors’ population. Their online library has valuable links for Elder Abuse, Health Care Consent, hospitals, and long-term care homes.
Elder Abuse Prevention Ontario
Elder Abuse Ontario has developed a range of specific educational tools, to assist seniors, (their families and caregivers) in seeking out the appropriate Programs or Services, when there are situations of elder abuse. The Resources listed below, include information about financial abuse, flowcharts on reporting abuse cases, as well as tips for preventing elder abuse, safety and security or protecting one’s finances. Seniors Safety Line: 1-866-299-1011.
Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA), Ontario Chapter
The Canadian Mental Health Association operates a national crisis line, 1-866-531-2600, plus there ar 15 physical centres in Greater Toronto and another 15 such centres across Ontario.
Elder Abuse Awareness – Government of Canada
Resources on elder abuse include: Financial Abuse of Seniors: It’s Time to Face the Reality; publications and research; plus facts on the abuse of seniors.
Ministry for Seniors and Accessibility
Information on supports for seniors (health, transportation, housing, benefits, and tax credits) as well as Elder Abuse (what to do if a loved one is being abused, what to do if you’re being abused, and Ontario’s Strategy to Combat Elder Abuse).
Toronto Police Service – Elder Abuse Page
If you or someone you know needs support, please contact the distress centre: (416) 408-4357. For non-urgent matters, call the Divisional Policing Support Unit, (416) 808-0130.
Click here to return to Elder Abuse Law section.
Estate Litigation Links
The Estates Act is the major piece of legislation in Ontario that governs the process of how the last wishes of the deceased are carried out through a Will, and how property and other gifts are passed to beneficiaries.
Estates Administration Act
The Estates Administration Act is the major piece of legislation in Ontario that governs the executor(s) and how the handle the estate, according to the wishes of the deceases as well as laws of Ontario.
Health Care Consent Act
The Health Care Consent Act deals with capacity issues, substitute decision-making, giving of consent, withdrawal of consent, admission to care facilities, personal assistance services, and the Consent and Capacity Board.
Mental Health Act
The Mental Health Act deals with hospitalization of patients with mental health challenges and capacity in estate litigation issues.
Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee (OPGT)
In general, OPGT protects the rights and interests of mentally incapable adults. The OPGT will conduct an investigation when it receives information that an individual may be incapable and at risk of suffering serious financial or personal harm and no alternative solution is available. The OPGT manages the financial affairs of incapable people who have no one else who is authorized to do so.
Personal Health Information Protection Act
This Act defines personal health information, substitute decision-makers, collection, handling and storage, giving of consent, withdrawal of consent, determination of incapacity, and disclosure of personal health information.
Succession Law Reform Act
This is the major piece of legislation that governs Wills in Ontario. It prescribes who can make a Will, how the Will must be executed in order to be a valid Will, as well as provisions for people who die intestate (die without a Will), the designation of beneficiaries, the rules of survivorship, and provisions that need to be made for dependants.
Substitute Decisions Act
The Substitute Decisions Act governs what happens if a person is either temporarily or permanently incapacitated, in other words, unable to make decisions on their own behalf. It includes legislation the property and personal finances as well as for personal care (Power of Attorney). It also spells out the rules for how guardians are to be appointed.
The Act governs what powers and rights of Trustees, liabilities, as well as their duties to administer an Estate.
Click here to return to Estate Litigation section.
Employment Law Links
Canada Labour Code
The Canada Labour Code is the major piece of Canadian federal legislation that consolidates certain statutes respecting labour. The objective of the Code is to facilitate production by controlling strikes and lockouts, occupational safety and health, and some employment standards. The labour rights and responsibilities of about 18,000 employers and 900,000 of their employees are defined by the Canada Labour Code.
If you are employed by one of the following businesses and industries, you are more than likely working in a federally regulated sector: banks, marine shipping, ferry and port services, air transportation, including airports, aerodromes, and airlines.
Canadian Human Rights Commission
Established in 1977, the Canadian Human Rights Commission (CHRC) is empowered under the Canadian Human Rights Act to investigate and try to settle complaints of discrimination in employment and in the provision of services within federal jurisdiction.
Employment Insurance Canada
Employment Insurance (EI) provides temporary income support to unemployed workers while they look for employment or to upgrade their skills. Workers receive EI benefits only if they have paid premiums in the past year and meet qualifying and entitlement conditions.
Employment Standards Act (ESA) – Ontario
Established in 2000, the Employment Standards Act (ESA), provides the minimum standards for most employees working in Ontario. It sets out the rights and responsibilities of employers and employees in most Ontario workplaces.
Occupational Health and Safety Act
The main purpose of the Act is to protect workers from health and safety hazards on the job. It sets out duties for all workplace parties and rights for workers. It establishes procedures for dealing with workplace hazards and provides for enforcement of the law where compliance has not been achieved voluntarily.
Ontario Accessibility Law (including AODA)
The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act ( AODA) is a law that sets out a process for developing and enforcing accessibility standards. Persons with disabilities and industry representatives work together with the government to develop the standards.
Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC)
The Ontario Human Rights Commission was established as an arm’s length agency of government in 1961 to prevent discrimination and to promote and advance human rights in Ontario.
Ontario Human Rights Code
The Ontario Human Rights Code is a law in the Canadian province of Ontario that gives all people equal rights and opportunities without discrimination in five specific social areas: employment, housing, services, unions and vocational associations, and contracts.
Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB)
The Workplace Safety & Insurance Board is the provincial agency that provides support and insurance for workers injured on the job. Each workplace has insurance to assist workers if they get hurt while on the job. Your workplace insurance entitles you to a range of benefits.
Click here to return to Employment Law section.
Civil Litigation Links
Arthur Wishart Act (Franchise Disclosure)
The Act, enacted in 2000, is designed to protect the often unsophisticated purchasers of franchises by “redressing the imbalance of power” as between franchisor and franchisee that is typically inherent in such transactions. It was named after Arthur Wishart, a Conservative MPP who championed the rights of franchisees in the 1970s and 1980s.
Business Corporations Act (BCA) – Federal
The Canada Business Corporations Act (CBCA) is the federal law that regulates business structures in Canada. The CBCA covers the rules for founding a corporation or other business structure in Canada, the reporting requirements it operates under, and the approved procedure for dissolving the company when it closes up.
Business Corporations Act – Ontario
The Business Corporations Act (Ontario) provides for a residency requirement for directors. Twenty-five per cent of the directors of an Ontario company must be “resident Canadians” as defined by the Act. This means that if an Ontario company has one to four directors, at least one of them must be a resident Canadian.
Personal Property and Security Act (PPSA), Ontario
Personal Property Securities Act (PPSA) is a set of comprehensive rules that govern the rights of creditors and debtors when personal property is used as collateral to secure payment of debt. The PPSA, federal legislation, came into effect in January 2012.
Repair and Storage Liens Act (RSLA)
The Repair and Storage Liens Act (RLSA) is an act which revises the law relating to the repair and storage of goods. The act sets out the rights of repairers and storers as well as the rights of individuals whose goods have been repaired and stored.